Densified Total Mixed Ration Blocks

Problem statement

Feed is the major input cost for livestock production. Poor nutrition of animals has been identified as the major constraint to animal production across the developing world (FAO, 2000) chiefly due to
1. an acute shortage of feed resources.
2. lack of efforts to increase green forage production and to improve the management of degraded and unmanaged pastures.
3. Improper management of feed resources, especially that of the bulky and fibrous crop residues, and wastage through burning
Thus, there is an urgent need to optimize the use of the limited feed resources, especially straws for ruminant feeding.

Executive summary

The first step in the process of making straw-based feed blocks is the grinding of concentrate ingredients, followed by their mixing and addition of the feed additives. This is then followed by mixing of these ingredients and straw in proper proportions along with addition of molasses in a specifically designed TMR mixer, taking care that mixing is uniform and ingredients are not separated due to gravity. Finally, the weighed quantity of the mixed stuff is transferred into a hydraulic press to get the final product – the DTMRB.

Technology description

A grinder (hammer mill) and a mixer are required for making a normal concentrate mixture. A specially designed TMR Mixer is required for mixing weighed quantities of low density crop residue (straws, stovers, bagasse, dried forest grasses, dried tree leaves etc.) and the high-density concentrate. Molasses and any other liquid feed additive are also added at this stage. The mixing is done through vertical motion, so that there is no separation due to gravity. Weighed quantity of the mixed ingredients is transferred into densification machine (Works on the principle of hydraulic compression) which compresses the forage and concentrate mixture into densified complete feed block.

Market deployment considerations

Market is available. Issues of storage and binding material used

Environmental considerations


Technology feedstock

straw wheat straw corn stover cotton feed stocks soy

Type of process


Technology output

animal feed



Technology Readiness Level







Research and Technological Center

Technology owner/developer

National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India
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