Karnal Process

Problem statement

High levels of fiber are observed in feed resources, which are not in a good state to enhance animal nutrition. There is therefore need to increase the quality of feed material and ensure that animals derive maximum benefit from feed resources.

Executive summary

Biological treatments (Karnal process) aiming at the deconstruction of lignocelluloses employs selective ligninolytic white-rot basidiomycetes under solid-state fermentation.

Technology description

Technology developed at NDRI, Karnal (India). Straw is treated with 4% urea at moisture level of 60%. The treated straw is stacked in a silo pit under cover for 30 days. A temporary loose brick structure is constructed and a thin layer of urea treated straw spread evenly in this structure. A solution of the following composition is prepared. 60g superphosphate, 60g calcium oxide dissolved in 8-liter water. Sprinkled over the urea treated straw and inoculated with 3% Coprinus fimeratius culture. This is allowed to remain for 5 days then used for feeding. The main advantage of this process is that free ammonia is converted into microbial protein and ligno cellulose bond is degraded.

Market deployment considerations

"Longer time required in processing feed

Environmental considerations

Research and Technological Center

Technology feedstock

crop residues straw

Type of process

biological treatment

Technology output

animal feed


Farm, Village

Technology Readiness Level







issues of space and storage"

Technology owner/developer

National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India
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