Pelletising- Use of cassava in livestock and aquaculture feeding programs

Problem statement

Despite recognized nutritional shortcomings, all parts of cassava can be successfully used in livestock and aquaculture feeding programs. Various studies document the replacement value of processed cassava root/ peels as an energy ingredient when paired with appropriate nitrogen sources, substituting for maize at up to ~40% of total diets in cattle, 20 to 50% in small herbivores (goats, sheep, rabbits), and up to 100% in swine diets, 10 to 40% in various poultry diets, and 15–30 to 60% in aquaculture diets (depending on species/age). Further, in aquaculture, cassava starch acts as a natural pellet binder.

Executive summary

On a global scale, cassava (Manihot esculenta) represents both an important human food resource and, in many regions, an underutilized animal feed ingredient. Cultivated in tropical/subtropical environments, cassava can be grown on marginal lands; it is relatively drought-hardy, and all parts of the plant can be utilized; and its roots comprise an energy staple in many regions. In recent years, the African continent produced ~60% of the global cassava crop (256 million tonne) through targeted efforts to develop improved varieties; yet only a small fraction is utilized for animal feeding programs throughout Africa. Potential for increased utilization is vast, particularly of unused or underused fractions and residues such as peels.

Technology description

The first step is usually washing, followed by peeling, drying and pelletizing.The key innovation is to grate the peels, and then squash them in a hydraulic press to rapidly remove the liquid.The process produces a kind of 'cassava peel cake', which is then grated again, forming particles of uniform size, which dry out in a matter of hours. The resulting product - called "High Quality Cassava Peels" or HQCP -- has just 10-12 percent moisture content and keeps for six months.
The high-fibre coarser particles can be separated out for pig and ruminant feed, while the higher-protein finer particles can be given to poultry (Drying, fermentation and enzyme treatments improve utilization of cassava peel fractions for monogastrics and polygastrics). Dryers, hydraulic press machine and pelletizing equipment needed.

Market deployment considerations

Cassava use as livestock feeds reguires pre-treatment before being fed to livestcok due to presence of antinutritive factors.

Environmental considerations

The byproducts are safe to the environment

Technology feedstock

cassava starch potato peelings cassava peels

Type of process


Technology output

feed livestock feed poultry feed


Village, Community

Technology Readiness Level







Research and Technological Center

Technology owner/developer

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